Seven Chairs (in German Sieben Stühle in Latin Septem Sedes ) is called a territory of the Imperial Lands ( Königsboden ) in Transylvania (GermanSiebenbürgen means “seven cities”: Sibiu, Brasov, Medias, Sighisoara, Sebes, Rupea, Bistrita ), representing units of Directors Saxons of Transylvania, in the twelfth century until the late nineteenth century.
On 14 July 1349 is the first indication that there were seven seats ( Sieben Stühle ) consisting of “principal seat” ( Hauptstuhl ) from Sibiu (Cybininum ) and seven “side chairs” ( Nebenstühle ) from Drastic ( Broos ) Sebes ( Mühlbach ), Miercurea Sibiu ( Ruzmargt today Reußmarkt ),Sighisoara ( castrum Sches today Schäßburg ) Nocrich ( Leuskyrch today Leschkirch ) Cincu ( Schenk , today Großschenk ) and Rupea ( Reps ).
Şeica seat and seat Medias were formed later, under the name of ” Two Chairs “( Zwei Stühle ). District Brasov and Bistrita District were formed and they later but had no chairs subordination .
A “seat” was a union of several towns and villages, subject to the same judicial powers. For each chair was designated a “royal judge” (Königsrichter ) ( judex regis ), which was subject only to the king of Hungary.
Seats and districts were headed by a judge of the place, called the county seat (in German Stuhlrichter in Latin judex sedis or judex terrestris ) assisted later by a military commander. The highest administrative function of the Saxons was the “seat of Sibiu County” (in German Stuhlrichter von Hermannstadt in Latin judex Cibinensis ).
From 1453 Tălmaciului seat and the seat Săliştei were incorporated city, as its subsidiaries, to the abolition of the Saxon University after the Austro-Hungarian dualism.
Prior to form a secular organization, administrative, Saxons had an ecclesiastical organization which incorporate by deans and surrender almost all the Saxon population. Saxon secular administration was born later and did not contain all the regions inhabited by Saxons , knowing that in areas where they sat there and villages inhabited by Székely , Hungarian and especially Romanian .
From the royal initiative, Prepozituria Sibiu embed its management Saxon majority of the population in this region. Prepozit function of Sibiu was one of the most important royal investiture requiring confirmation of the pope. Prepozitura be based in Sibiu, but there were cases like that of the preposition Theodoricus in 1245 which simultaneously fulfilled the function of priest in Sebes .
In 1219 Pope Honorius III founded the ecclesiastical organization of Barsa , the purpose of establishing a new bishopric episcopate unaffiliated Transylvania, calling a dean own. In addition was founded Diocese Milcovia , placed under the protection of the Teutonic Knights , whose initiative was Christianization Cumans settled on this land. It followed the establishment of surrender and dean in all territories Saxon villages comprising less administration than districts and seats. Few surrendered were affiliated prepoziturii city, most of them belonging to the bishopric of Transylvania. Barsa, like all capitulii not belonging to the bishopric of Transylvania belonged to the Archdiocese of Esztergom . There was a time when capitulii strengthened their autonomy in centuries XIII and XIV, as with the adoption of the Lutheran Reformation in the sixteenth century, to succeed the establishment of a bishopric own.
§Administration secular [ change | change source ]
By the Andreanum of 1224, issued by King Andrew II of Hungary were abolished all Transylvanian counties except Sibiu County, the latter giving it the component that territory and lands between Drastic and Drăuşeni ( Baraolt ). If colonization by Saxons in the eleventh century and XII was made in isolated groups, from XIII century King Andrew II wanted their administrative and legal unification  , in one ” people “( populus site unus ). By the beginning of the fourteenth century, the head of Sibiu was chosen by the king a commit and then it was only confirmed in office by the central government. During this period, the princes of the royal commissioners had little involvement in community affairs Saxon, but administrative organizations are known as “Saxon seats” are assumed to be composed of the original counties before 1224, the term “chair” as a form Short “judgment seat.” Sibiu province seats were created in the middle of the thirteenth century and the first documentary mention was made only in the second half of XIV century. The “Seven seats” were original: Drastic , Sebes , Miercurea , Sibiu , Nocrich , Cincu and Rupea the seat added to Sighisoara at the beginning of the fourteenth century and Two Chairs, hire chairs London and Seica the century XV. Th. Nagler considers that the assumption of the existence of the initial eight seats, ignoring the most important of them, Chair of Sibiu , it would be totally wrong. 
Leading the county seat was a royal Saxon ( judex regius ) appointed from among Greava , seconded by magistrates elected chair from among residents and later by magistrates village (villicus ). Officials chair dealt with perception and distribution royal duties, financial and administration issues and mobilizing the army, the highest institution of the Congregation seat Sibiu province. How Saxon seats were not a unified territory, it is easy to see that many villages founded by the Saxon lands were part of the nobility and the Romanian counties populated by other nations, and could include such territories Secaşelor Plateau , and the lands of the Küküllő Northern Transylvania. In addition to the seats thus constituted, had its own administration districts Bistritaand Brasov .
Function commit or royal judge District Braşov and Bistrita was exercised until the beginning of the fourteenth century Committees Székelys . The jurisdiction of the district Bistrita noble disbanded since 1330 when the Saxon community began to freely choose the judge. Since 1366, Louis amplifies Saxons and designate rights for Bistrita as a court of appeal, Chair of Sibiu. Later, after the second half of the fifteenth century, representatives of the two chairs, of districts Bistrita and Braşov and the villages Vinţ and Vurpăr , frequently attending meetings of the Seven Seats.
In 1486 Matthias Corvinus confirmed bachelor extinds Andreian and take effect on all the regions inhabited by Saxon royal land ( fundus regius ). Thus was founded Saxon University ( Universitas Saxorum ) in 1487 by meeting representatives of the Seven Chairs of the two seats and the districts Bistrita and Brasov. If the administrative power belonged to nobles in the first centuries of colonization and subsequent Greava after XIV century leadership returned Saxon patricians. The patriciate has enslaved many villages outside the territories administered initially created their own fields, like the cities of northern Italy.  In this way arose seats subsidiaries as of Tălmaciului filial seat and seat of Săliştei filial , which were mainly Romanian community administration.