Unlike the obvious impact of French influence in the Old Kingdom, outside the Carpathians, in Transylvania and Banat, part of the Habsburg Empire until 1918, architecture manifested in resonance with the style of “Secession” Vienna and Budapest.
In some cities, Oradea, Arad and Timisoara, middle class with a growing economic force will turn to the latest trends in Central Europe for its building initiatives. Architects practicing in the idiom Sezession centers Austro-Hungarian Empire built for many local entrepreneurs and ambitious family estate report undoubtedly marks, until today, the urban context at the center of these cities.
In contrast, in the center of the Transylvanian plateau, in Targu Mures or St George stood monumental buildings for administration, involving numerous artistic techniques in external ornamentation and interior decoration and private residences in a sober architecture with explicit references to art design traditional region.
Venacular Transylvanian Secession style and style
Examination of the proposed architecture into European modernity in this part of the country, between 1901 and 1920, followed two tracks. The first direction, the early and widespread, link to influence notable Odon Lechner style of Budapest illustrated. Several of his students and collaborators Odon designed and executed with functions and structures of various sizes, from the diminutive urban housing administrative offices monumental. Architecture guided by this guidance recognizes the style “Secession” folclorizat, exuberant and decorated. Scalloped attics, treating frames, facade reliefs, railings and parapets graphics put into practice a depth of curves and vegetal elements.
Craft tradition (artistic processing of iron and wood, ceramic glazed building, mural painting, decorative mocazic or furniture) and art crafts workshops will introduce Transylvanian Secession style especially typical elements of embroidery. As neo-Romanian architecture beyond the Carpathians, in Transylvania, architectural ornaments cite this traditional textile art. There are also, in relation to the treatment of buildings especially the fronts classic-Secession grafts or eclectic.
A second direction later in temporal order and most interesting link to formulating a Transylvanian style in architecture. Concominent received lessons from Art Nouveau and from searches related to proposed regional spirit of Saarinen and his associates, but also the architectural philosophy of the school of organicist Glasgow or other searches will exert strong influences on many talented architects.
Less interested in the effects of secessionism guidance ornamental Lechner, Karoly Kos, Wigand Thoroczai-Vago brothers will go mainly to volume and composition lessons proposed austerity decorative historical examples and vernacular. The comprehensive searches and their construction activities have contributed to the formulation of a regional authenticity and install a variant convincing guidelines today circumscribed National romanticism category.
Székely National Museum building in Saint-George
The museum building is illustrative Székely National Transylvanian regional style, rooted in folk architecture and medieval architecture. Plan, shape, structure building are references to castles, cities, Saxon fortified churches and traditional house Székely. Using local materials and local craftsmen to build the museum shows an affinity for the movement “Arts & Crafts”.The relationship between the courtyard and the main entrance is an allusion to the fortified churches in Transylvania.
Entry to the museum itself is a Romanesque portal achieved. The central tower is finished with a wooden gazebo, crowned with towers corner and covered with colored ceramic “Zsolany. The tower is the central compositional element that articulates side volumes housing the showroom.
P RIMAR of Targu Mures
The building originally designed for city hall is a large-scale work done by roofing contractors and Jakab Oradea arhiecţilor partnership. Opera these two marks becoming contemporary architects cities like Oradea and Targu Mures and is essential for expression and completion of the Secession’s stylistic vocabulary Transylvania.
Treated as an autonomous volume, large scale, communal palace program is interpreted here by a symmetrical composition on two axes developed horizontally intervention highlighted by color. A 60-meter campanile open market composition by cultural palace to be carried out a few years later by the same architects.
Sober decoration of polychrome pottery and stucco exterior with folk motifs dominated by geometric and chromatic interior living is offset by a highly charged: ribbed vaults terminated by stellate rosettes, marble tiles, panels of gold and wrought iron chandeliers, panels associated stained glass stained glass technique) with multiple references and sometimes extravagant and exotic examples from Hungarian folklore and cultural tradition.
Ensemble arhitectual “Black Eagle” in Oradea
Urban Island incorporating multiple functions served by an interior street with three accesses Y, showing the city building facades consolidated report, “Black Eagle” was built between 1907 and 1909. The architectural ensemble includes a cinema, theater, a hotel, offices, shops, meeting rooms and homes.
In chronological order, precede Black Eagle large work performed by architects Jakab and Komor partnership in Targu Mures and be ranked among the most important and complex Secession style architecture in Transylvania. The facades accumulate skilfully entire arsenal of momentum- formal sculptural volumes, involving a variety of materials and decorative techniques, folk elements such as curved cock on the corner of the building. The scale of the theaters monmentală presents an interesting and massive balustrade semicircular arch and lower groin interţiile suggest consistent with Viennese atmosphere.